Saturday, July 21, 2018

Gaps between primes

Everyone has probably learned in mathematics at school what primes are. They are numbers that are divisible only by 1 and themselves. So all the numbers that are divisible by 2 are missing.

While many primes are still close together for small numbers, separated by "even numbers", this becomes rarer as the number grows. For example, numbers less than 10 contain quite a few primes "side by side" (separated from even numbers). Like 2, 3, 5, and 7. The bigger the number, the less likely it is. For example, between 400 and 410, there are only the primes 401 and 409.

Cryptography uses primes to encrypt files and other data. For this large primes are used. Powerful computers are set to find ever larger primes, which turns out to be more and more difficult.

On the other hand, the question arises as to whether it is probable that, according to the currently largest prime number found, there are numbers that follow (after an even number) two prime numbers. Since there are an infinite number of numbers, I suspect that will eventually apply. Or maybe not? Nobody will have an answer for that until proven.

Or has any reader here an answer? Please comment.

Friday, June 22, 2018

Lucifer season 4

According to TV Line the series Lucifer was renewed for season 4, starring Tom Ellis, picked up by Netflix.

I liked the show. Wasn't my favorite show though but entertaining. But with season final of season 3 when Lucifer showed his devil face to Chloe Decker all the magic has gone. Because the show was all about others than God's children not knowing that Lucifer is indeed the devil. The show should in my opinion have ended there.

Then there were the two bonus episodes. Boo Normal which followed the timeline after his face was revealed but Chloe went on with business as usual, only briefly mentioning she saw much stranger things than what Ella reported to her. Okay, he is the devil, so what.... And Ella now revealed her personal ghost which actually also was an angel. I was afraid she would deal in about every future episode with that, making her a main character rather than a supporting cast member. While Once Upon a Time took place in an alternate timeline. This was rather boring and didn't fit well into a possible season 4 episode, especially after the cliffhanger with Lucifer revealing his devil face.

I wonder how they deal with these things in season 4. In my opinion they should have tied up loose ends and cancel the series for good after that.

Monday, June 11, 2018

The General Data Protection Regulation

Regulation No 2016/679, known as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), is a regulation of the European Union which constitutes the reference text for the protection of data. personal data. It strengthens and unifies data protection for individuals in the European Union.


After four years of legislative negotiations, this regulation was definitively adopted by the European Parliament on 14 April 2016. Its provisions are directly applicable in all 28 Member States of the European Union as of 25 May 2018. This regulation replaces the directive on the protection of personal data adopted in 1995 (Article 94 of the Regulation); contrary to the directives, the regulations do not imply that Member States adopt a transposition law to be applicable.

Main objectives

The main objectives of the RGPD are to increase both the protection of the persons concerned by the processing of their personal data and the accountability of those involved in this processing. These principles can be applied by increasing the power of the regulatory authorities.


In January 2012, the European Commission proposed a comprehensive reform of the rules on the protection of personal data in the European Union. This reform has two components:

  • the updating and modernization of the principles set out in the 1995 European Data Protection Directive, in the form of this General Data Protection Regulation
  • the drafting of a new Directive on the protection of personal data in the context of police and judicial activities

The purpose of this new regulation is to give citizens control over their personal data, while simplifying the regulatory environment for businesses.

The European Parliament amended this regulation and adopted it on 12th of March 2014 at first reading. Negotiations continued between the delegations of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union and ended on 15th of December 2015. The draft Regulation was passed in the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. Home Affairs (LIBE) on 17th of December 2015. The European Regulation was published on 4th of May 2016 in the Official Journal of the European Union and enters into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication. This Regulation applicable from 25th of May 2018 is binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States. The Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal, around the recovery and analysis of data for electoral purposes, bursts shortly before its implementation.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Zilog Z80 CPU

The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog. One of the peculiarities of this processor is the coupling of some 8-bit registers to a 16-bit register. This with a 16-bit address bus allows for much faster processing of data than with a conventional 8-bit processor.

This processor was marketed for the first time in July 1976. In the early 1980s it was very popular in the design of 8-bit computers such as Radio Shack TRS-80, Sinclair ZX80, ZX81, ZX Spectrum, MSX standard, Amstrad CPC, PC-88 and later in embedded systems. With the MOS 6502 family, it dominated the 8-bit micro computer market from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s and was still used in then new Amstrad computers until 1995.

The Z80 was designed to be compatible with the Intel 8080, so the majority of the code for 8080 could work without much modification on the Z80. The CP/M operating system was designed around Intel 8080 based systems and could also work without modification on Z80 based systems.Z80 based systems were generally more powerful and had more features than systems based on 8080 CPUs. Some versions of CP/M applications only existed in a Z80 version.

History and overview

Z80 CPU DIP by DamicatzThe Z80 came into being when Federico Faggin, after working on the 8080, left Intel at the end of 1974 to found Zilog together with Ralph Ungermann to put the Z80 on the market in July of 1976. It was designed to be binary compatible with the Intel 8080 so that most of the 8080 code, including the CP/M operating system, works without modification on it. The Z80 quickly took over share from the 8080 on the market, and became one of the most popular 8-bit processors. Perhaps one of the keys to Z80's success was the integrated refresh of DRAM, and other features that allowed systems to be built with fewer chips. For the first NMOS generation, the maximum clock rate increased gradually. First at 2.5 MHz, then by the well known 4 MHz (Z80a), up to 6 (Z80b) and 8 MHz (Z80h). A CMOS version was developed with frequency limits ranging from 4 MHz to 20 MHz and some versions were sold until the 2000s. The CMOS version also has a low power sleep mode, with processor state retention. The Z180 and eZ80, fully compatible derivatives, have specifications for up to  50 MHz.

Use in systems

The Z80 CPU saw uses including in Texas Instruments calculators, SEGA Master System, GameBoy, and Game Gear video game consoles. Some more powerful consoles with other central processors like the Neo Geo or the Mega Drive with its Motorola 68000, used the Z80 as an addon processor to handle sound or system I/O.

Saturday, May 19, 2018

The MOS 6502 CPU microprocessor

In the early '70s, a group of engineers from Motorola was convinced that it was possible to obtain a cheap microprocessor if a simple design and an improved manufacturing process were raised with respect to the standards of the time. Without the support of the company, this group would create one of the families of chips that would be the catalyst for the revolution of home computing, it is the 6502 and its successors, the main engine of the first Atari and Apple machines, between others.

Chuck Peddle was one of the leading engineers in the development of the Motorola 6800 processor, in his meetings with important industrial clients, he realized that the technology was appreciated, but too expensive to be used in a massive way. In conversations with his clients, he concluded that the cost of the processor had to go down from USD $ 300, which cost 6800 to only USD $ 25 at the time, a conclusion that did not make Motorola managers who had no motivation at all happy. to look to reduce the price of a technology that already had good sales.

Chuck Peddle and his work

For Chuck and other engineers it was an interesting technical challenge and without the support of Motorola they began to work on the necessary changes to improve their processor. On the one hand, the team was unhappy with Motorola's lack of support, and on the other hand the company was annoyed by Chuck's and his team's stubbornness, and finally the straw that broke the camel's back was Motorola's formal request to halt the project. that made Chuck and his team decide to leave the company, to continue working on their microprocessor on their own.

6502 CPU chip (C)


The group joined a low profile company called MOS, where they reached an agreement to participate in the profits that could be obtained with the new microprocessor, an agreement that from the MOS point of view was convenient due to the low profitability that meant in that time the production of these chips. This agreement, together with the mass resignation of Motorola was a demonstration of the confidence that the team of engineers had in the product they were developing.

The first processor of the 6500 series was 6501. An unprecedented fact that surrounded the development of this chip was that Chuck designed it completely by hand and it worked on the first attempt, when the normal thing in those years was to go through a process of over 10 failed attempts This processor was quite scarce since it was not made in order to be sold, but as a way to show Motorola how wrong they were, and that a useful and inexpensive microprocessor could be built.

One of the factors that influenced the reduction of production costs was an innovation of these engineers regarding the manufacturing process. In those times, the failure rate in production was 70%, that is, only 7 of every 10 processors manufactured went straight to the trash. This happened mainly because the process consisted of creating a large mold of the processor and applying reductions until reaching the real size, in these reductions errors always occurred and the engineers in MOS found a way to apply corrections to the mold in each reduction, achieving with this change a success rate of 70%, that is, 7 out of 10 processors were perfect.

The 6501, a Motorola clone?

The 6501 was fully compatible with the Motorola 6800 boards and could be used as a direct replacement at hardware level, which motivated a Motorola claim for alleged patent infringement of its former engineers. Supposed because in fact what was at stake was the intellectual property, since it was applying the knowledge of technologies that in fact were not patented. Even so an agreement was reached with Motorola and a sum of about USD $200,000 was paid to end the lawsuit.

The problem with Motorola caused the creation of the 6502, it was a 6501 but incompatible with the hardware designed for the Motorola 6800. The 6502 debuted at WestCon 1975 at the exact price of USD $ 25 that had been proposed. At first the attendees thought that it was some kind of scam, since it was not conceived to create such a cheap processor, but on the same day Motorola and Intel lowered the price of their 6800 and 8080 processors from USD $ 179 to only USD $ 69, validating the 6502 that was sold by the hundreds.

In the coming years Commodore, who was still in the calculator business, was going through financial difficulties as the business was going down and the competition was getting stronger. As a strategy to change the direction of the business, they bought from MOS, which was also struggling but had the technology they needed.

For Chuck Peddle the microprocessor business was geared to the industrial world, but while visiting different companies to try to sell the 6502 they told him that a couple of guys were trying to use their processor to build a personal computer. The fact seemed nice and agreed to go to help them to his garage, it was nothing more and nothing less than Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak who worked on his first Apple computer. Chuck thought about introducing the 6502 into the industries and he did not suspect that a big market was in personal computers. Not in a million years! In his own words.

The 6502 is an 8-bit processor, which means that all its internal operations handle numbers between 0 and 255, on the other hand it has a 16-bit address bus that allows it to access up to 64KB of memory. The 6502 normally operated with a clock between 1 and 2 Mhz but given the same clock frequency it was capable of running much faster than the Motorola 6800, thanks to its clever design that reduced the number of clock cycles needed to execute an instruction .

Among the computers that were built around the 6502 are the Commodore PET, VIC-20, Apple I and II, BBC Micro and the entire line of Atari 8 bit computers such as the XL, XE, 400, 800, but also can be found in other types of devices, such as the Commodore 1541 disk drive for Commodore 8 bit computers. In the pioneering Atari 2600 console, an economical version of the 6502 known as 6507 was used, a version that had fewer pins and could only access 8KB of memory. The Commodore 64 also used a modified 6502, it was the 6510 where it added simple features that were usually implemented with additional circuitry.

Saturday, May 12, 2018

Fast weight loss with reduction diets?

Losing body weight with a reduction diet

Origin of the term diet

The term diet comes from ancient Greek δίαιτα díaita and was originally used in the sense of lifestyle / the way of life. Dietetics is still scientifically concerned with the "right" diet and lifestyle. In the German-speaking world, the term refers to certain diets and diets that are intended either to weight loss or increase or to treat diseases. In the English-speaking world, diet is understood as the everyday diet of an obese person, regardless of weight-related or illness-related diets. Colloquially, the term in Germany is often equated with a reduction diet for weight loss. It is thus a synonym for slimming diet.

Types of diets

Lose weight - (C) GideonSince Hippocrates diet is a special diet of humans, in the longer term or permanently a special selection of food is consumed. The diet is either a short-term change in the diet for weight loss, for example to fight obesity or to remove belly fat, in some cases also to gain weight like anorexia or a longer-term to permanent dietary change to supportive treatment of a disease (like in celiac disease, lactose intolerance, fructose intolerance. Fasting, on the other hand, means the temporary abandonment of food from religious (in Ramadan Islam, pre-Easter Lent in the Christian church) or health motivation for fasting.

Any form of diet, whether for weight loss or supportive disease treatment, is based on a reduction or increase in the relative proportion of a nutritional component (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and preservatives) over the others and / or a reduction or increase in the intake total energy and, if necessary, a balanced change in fluid intake.

A more holistic approach is cognitive behavioral therapy used by psychologists in clinics to treat obesity. In this method, dysfunctional behavioral routines and eating habits are identified and retrained. In case of severe obesity and eating disorders, it is the most sensible method of weight loss in the long term.

Fast weight loss with a reduction diet

A reduction diet aims at losing body weight. There are numerous reduction diets, some of which differ considerably in their methods. Only a few diets have been scientifically tested. The development and promotion of the reduction diets is not only subject to changes in scientific knowledge but also to fashions and worldviews. Some forms of diet are even considered harmful to health in medicine.

Reduction diets should be given only for a short time (and for extreme forms only under medical supervision). The general consensus is that a reduction diet can only be successful if it is followed by a permanent change in diet in which the energy balance of the body is balanced, d. H. in which no more energy is supplied via food than the body needs. A change of life towards a full-fledged diet and increased physical activity is recommended. When relapsing into old eating habits and habits, it usually comes back to a rise in body weight, the so-called yo-yo effect, because you fall into old eating habits that are not adapted to the new lower body weight.

There are numerous diets with different concepts. These are for example low-carb, low-fat, food combining or glyx diet. In a study of mice conducted by the Institute for Nutritional Research, there is a connection between the consumption of fructose and obesity, which is not based on the increased energy intake, but on the fact that fructose affects the metabolic activity and thus the accumulation favored by body fat. The selfish brain theory, which also includes an approach to explain obesity, does not question the short-term effects of reduction diets, but their long-term success in principle.

Does fast weight loss with a reduction diet work?

In short it pretty much depends if the person really wants it. There is no wonder pill. The person has to work on it. The own will needs to be strong enough to go through it. Otherwise there is no weight loss, only losing the fight.

Sunday, April 29, 2018

Legislation of cannabis in Canada

Where to buy pot, marijuana and weeds in Toronto and Montreal?

Locations to legally buy pot in Toronto are

  • 770 Gardiners Road, Kingston
  • 2480 Gerrard Street East, Toronto
  • 570 Harbour Expressway, Thunder Bay
  • 304 Stone Road West, Guelph

The city of Montreal announced that the first four locations to buy pot are located near Metro stations. Societe Quebecoise du Cannabis STM locations are at

  • Berri-UQAM
  • Jean-Talon
  • Radisson
  • Lionel-Groulx

Others will follow.

Since 1997, cannabis, pot and marijuana in Canada has been regulated by the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. According to this law, unauthorized possession, trafficking, possession for the purpose of trafficking, production, import and export are considered illegal. The penalties are different depending on the offense. However, the law leaves a lot of power to the judges who impose the sentence.

Cannabis was banned in Canada in 1923 by federal law to that effect, but the use of cannabis for medical purposes was first permitted in 2001. Following an effort to decriminalize Jean Chrétien in 2003 with Bill C-38, Liberal Party Leader of Canada Justin Trudeau made the legalization of cannabis a key part of his platform during the federal election campaign.
Nevertheless, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is permitted by the Regulation respecting access to cannabis for medical purposes. It allows the consumption and cultivation of cannabis for users holding a prescription from a Canadian doctor. These individuals can not be arrested for cannabis use in accordance with the doctor's instructions.
The possible legalization of recreational cannabis was debated in 2017 for possible application on July 1, 2018. The law allowing the recreational use of cannabis has been adopted by the Canadian House of Commons in November 2017.


For production, the penalty is up to seven years imprisonment. For importation, the penalty is life imprisonment. For possession for the purpose of trafficking and trafficking, the penalties are life imprisonment if the quantity is greater than three kilograms and five years if it is less than three kilograms. For simple possession, the penalties are a maximum of five years imprisonment if the amount exceeds thirty grams and a maximum of one thousand dollars fine or six months in prison for less than thirty grams.

Under the age of 18, offenses are governed by the Young Offenders Act, the penalties depend on the offenses, but they may include alternative measures, community work, fines, custody of different durations, and a criminal record. Having a criminal record can make it very difficult or even impossible to leave the country. In addition, he may penalize the offender during a job selection process. On the other hand, the criminal record of a minor is normally (as the case may be) erased when the age of majority reaches 18 years.
A political party operating at the provincial level in Quebec, Bloc Pot, aims to legalize cannabis.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announces in his 2016 policy speech the upcoming legalization of cannabis, becoming the first G7 country to do so.